Tax Calculation in Nigeria: How To Do It Well

Nigeria, a vibrant and dynamic nation in West Africa, boasts a top economic position among its neighbors. With a youthful population and a rapidly expanding pool of educated professionals, Nigeria offers a wealth of talent to the global workforce.

However, understanding the nuances of tax calculation in Nigeria is crucial for employers and employees alike.

This guide will help you navigate the complexities of tax calculation in Nigeria with ease and confidence.

tax calculation in nigeria

The Basics of PAYE in Nigeria

In Nigeria, the Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) system is used to collect personal income tax from employed individuals. This system can be confusing, especially for employers who must ensure accurate deductions to avoid penalties and fines from the Nigerian government. Understanding how to correctly calculate PAYE is essential for compliance.

Who Needs to Pay PAYE?

Employers must deduct PAYE from the salaries of individuals who:

  • Work in Nigeria
  • Are employed full-time or part-time in Nigeria
  • Have a permanent base in Nigeria

Employers must remit the deducted amount to the revenue authority by the 10th of the following month.

Steps for PAYE Tax Calculation in Nigeria

Step 1: Calculate Gross Salary

Start by summing up the employee’s salary and allowances. Gross salary includes basic pay, housing, transport, leave, utilities, furniture, meals, and other allowances.

Step 2: Determine Taxable Income

Subtract all relevant deductions from the gross income to get the taxable income. Common deductions include pension contributions, National Housing Fund (NHF) contributions, and other statutory deductions.

Step 3: Apply Tax Rates

Nigeria uses a graduated tax system. Here’s a breakdown of the current PAYE tax rates:

Annual Taxable Income (Naira)Tax Rate
First 300,000 NGN7%
Next 300,000 NGN11%
Next 500,000 NGN15%
Next 500,000 NGN19%
Next 1,600,000 NGN21%
Over 3,200,000 NGN24%

Calculate the tax based on the employee’s income bracket.

Evaluating PAYE Tax Calculators

Choosing a reliable PAYE tax calculator is crucial. Look for these features:

  • Accuracy: Ensures calculations are based on current tax rates and regulations.
  • User-Friendliness: Simple interface for easy input of financial data.
  • Up-to-Date Information: Regular updates to reflect changes in tax codes and rates.
  • Security: Robust measures to protect user data.
  • Accessibility: Available on multiple platforms, including web and mobile.
  • Customization: Allows input of specific details like deductions and allowances.
  • Customer Support: Responsive support and helpful resources.

Simplifying Personal Income Tax

Personal Income Tax (PIT) in Nigeria is governed by the Personal Income Tax Act (PITA). This tax is direct because it is deducted from your earnings. Here’s a simplified example:

Example: Annual Salary of N1.2 Million

  1. Breakdown of Salary:
    • Basic Salary: 690,000 NGN
    • Housing: 150,000 NGN
    • Meal Allowance: 60,000 NGN
    • Entertainment Allowance: 60,000 NGN
    • Utility Allowance: 80,000 NGN
    • Transport Allowance: 91,000 NGN
    • Leave Allowance: 69,000 NGN
    • Total: 1,200,000 NGN
  2. Deductions:
    • Housing Allowance: 150,000 NGN
    • Transport Allowance: 20,000 NGN
    • Meal Allowance: 5,000 NGN
    • Entertainment Allowance: 6,000 NGN
    • Utility Allowances: 10,000 NGN
    • Personal Allowance: 245,000 NGN
    • Child Allowance: 10,000 NGN
    • Dependent Relative: 4,000 NGN
    • Leave Allowance: 69,000 NGN
    • NHF: 17,250 NGN
    • Pension: 69,825 NGN
    • Total Deductions: 606,075 NGN
  3. Taxable Income:
    • Balance after deductions: 593,925 NGN
  4. Apply Tax Rates:
    • First 160,000 NGN: 5% of 30,000 = 1,500 NGN
    • Next 30,000 NGN: 10% of 30,000 = 3,000 NGN
    • Next 50,000 NGN: 15% of 50,000 = 7,500 NGN
    • Next 50,000 NGN: 20% of 50,000 = 10,000 NGN
    • Total Tax for first 160,000 NGN = 22,000 NGN
    • Remaining 433,935 NGN: 25% = 108,481.25 NGN
    • Total Annual Tax: 130,481.25 NGN
    • Monthly Tax: 10,873.43 NGN


Understanding tax calculation in Nigeria is vital for ensuring compliance and avoiding penalties. By following the steps outlined above, you can confidently navigate the PAYE system. For further assistance, consider using a reliable PAYE tax calculator that offers accuracy, user-friendliness, and up-to-date information.